J. F. Gmelin, 1789,
Analysis of mtDNA suggests that present species and A. cristatella form a clade, with A. psittacula a close relative of the two. Birds from Kuril Is were separated as race camtschatica on basis of different body size, but recent studies confirm existence only of simple clinal variation, size increasing from E to W. Monotypic.
NE Sea of Okhotsk (Penzhin Gulf, Yamskiye Is, Iony I) and Commander Is S to at least C Kuril Is, and throughout Aleutians E to Four Mountains Is and Krenitzen Is. Winters mostly near breeding locations, but S as far as Japan, and casual in N Bering Sea (e.g. St Lawrence I).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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