Relationships uncertain. Recent study suggested that this species is closer to South American members of genus than to N congeners, appearing phylogenetically more closely related to Neotropical taxa M. choliba and M. albogularis#R. Has reportedly hybridized with M. kennicottii in Arizona#R. Several additional races described: pinosus (from Veracruz), ridgwayi (Michoacán) and guerrerensis (SW Mexico) included in nominate; pumilus (from Honduras) in mesamericanus. Three subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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