Brazil and Paraguay.
Recent molecular phylogeny indicated sister relationship between present species and P. temminckii#R. Closely related also to P. dorbignyanus, and has sometimes been treated as conspecific with one or the other, or both; hybridizes frequently with P. temminckii in SE Brazil (São Paulo and Paraná), and occasionally with P. dorbignyanus in Bolivia. Interbreeds to limited extent also with P. albosquamatus and apparently with P. varzeae; form described as P. corumbanus considered by some to be hybrid between present species and P. albosquamatus (but see P. albosquamatus, below). SW races thamnophiloides, tucumanus and pilcomayensis intergrade in N Argentina, and sometimes considered together to form a separate species, but last of these also intergrades with nominate race in E Paraguay; similarly, N races confusus and macconnelli possibly form a distinct species. Further study needed in order to clarify relationships of this entire complex of taxa. Six subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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