Montaña de Vitoc, Junín, Peru.
Races may constitute more than one species, while some appear to represent no more than clinal or individual plumage variation, and some plumage characters (e.g. crown/nape colour#R) apparently inconstant; also, distinct but undescribed populations may exist within ranges of races listed; taxonomic study needed. Population S of R Amazon in Pará and N Mato Grosso currently included in nominate, but considered by some to be part of angustirostris; conversely, that on N bank between R Japurá and R Negro placed with angustirostris, but perhaps closer to nominate. Birds from C Brazil and N Bolivia described as race griseigula, but appear to intergrade with nominate with no clear boundary, and better synonymized. Publication date of angustirostris revised from 1848 to Mar 1849#R. Four subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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