interior NW Himalayas.
Until recently considered conspecific with S. przewalskii, but separated on basis of significant morphological and vocal differences (see S. przewalskii). Sometimes thought to be closely related to S. carolinensis and has been treated by some authors as conspecific with it, their contact calls being rather similar; has also been allied with the “S. canadensis group” and, again, some similarity in vocalizations. However, most comprehensive genetic study to date found S. przewalskii to be sister to all other nuthatches; present species remains unsampled#R. Monotypic.
NE Afghanistan (Nuristan S to N slopes of Safed Koh and Paktia Province), and Himalayas from N Pakistan (S to Kurram Valley and Murree Hills) E to Kashmir and N India (N Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand), and NW Nepal (Langu Valley, L Rara and Dolpo E to Tarakot, on Dhaulagiri Massif).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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