Río Negro, Boyacá, Colombia.
For many years considered conspecific with broadly sympatric S. femoralis. Systematics, and ranges of races listed, still unresolved: song in E Colombia and Ecuador (usually 1 second long, of 8–10 sharp upstroke notes at 2.5–2.6 kHz, even pace of 8–11 per second, song repeated at intervals of 1–3 seconds) very different from songs in SW Venezuela (c. 30 seconds, of sharp downstrokes at 2.8 kHz, 3–7 per second) and in Peru S & E of R Marañón (sharp 2.4–3 kHz downstroke, 4–7 per second, varying between single notes and short series of 2–7 at irregular intervals, or as continuous series for up to 30 seconds or more), suggesting that birds in E Andes of Colombia and Ecuador probably represent a separate species from populations to N, W and S; further study required. Three subspecies presently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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