America = Carolina ex Catesby.
Closely related to E. ruber. Proposal to merge the two into a single species on basis of close morphological and ecological similarities and natural hybridization in zone of overlap in Venezuela (where more than 40 mixed pairs recorded)#R; another view is that they may simply be colour morphs. Here, the case for lumping considered not proven. Two subspecies recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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