Family Tyrant-flycatchers (Tyrannidae)

Least Concern

White Monjita (Xolmis irupero)


French: Pépoaza irupéro German: Weißnonnentyrann Spanish: Monjita blanca

T[yrannus]. irupero


, 1823,

Río Plata, Paraguay


Two subspecies recognized.

Subspecies and Distribution
  • X. i. irupero (Vieillot, 1823) – C & SE Bolivia, NE & C Argentina (S to Mendoza and Río Negro), Paraguay, S & SE Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul) and Uruguay.
  • X. i. niveus (Spix, 1825) – E Brazil (Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte S to N Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo).
  • Descriptive notes

    17–18 cm; 21–29·5 g. Male is pure white, except for black prima­ries, primary coverts and tip of notched tail; iris dark brown; bill and legs black.... read more


    Usually silent; weak “ghiks” a whining “piew”; breeding male has soft, repeated dawn song, “preeeyp... read more


    Savannas, open and semi-open grassland, and pastures with scattered trees and bushes, often along... read more

    Food and feeding

    Insects. Perches conspicuously on treetops, bushes and wires; hides among dense and spiny vegetation if threatened or chased. Drops to... read more


    Sept–Dec in Argentina; nest in Nov and another being built in Aug in Uruguay. Nest a large open cup of twigs, grass and similar,... read more



    Status and conservation

    Not globally threatened. Rare to fairly common or common. Common in pantanal in Paraguay and Argentina; rare in E Brazil (race niveus). Occurs in many national parks... read more

    Recommended citation

    Farnsworth, A. & Langham, G. (2019). White Monjita (Xolmis irupero). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 6 December 2019).