Thought to be closely related to O. chimborazo, O. estella and O. stolzmanni, and all four have been considered conspecific; separated largely on morphological grounds. O. estella overlaps slightly with present species, with some hybridization; present species is, however, the form least frequently lumped into O. estella. Monotypic.
S Bolivia (Tarija; winter records from Cochabamba#R) S through Andes to SC Chile (Bío-Bío) and S Argentina (WC Santa Cruz).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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