no locality = Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Hitherto treated as conspecific with X. genibarbis, but differs in its bold plain white chin and throat connecting to white submoustachial streak with relatively little brown on malar below it (prominent and completely separating chin from submoustachial streak in X. genibarbis, all races of which have brown-streaked whitish throat) (2); less pale streaking extending onto breast (1); loudsong a series of 4–5 upslurred notes, the first slightly lower-pitched and subdued, vs much faster-delivered (2), more numerous and overslurred (3) notes#R. Claimed smaller size (in HBW) not apparent vs (at least) nominate X. genibarbis, but further study needed; molecular evidence supports the split#R. Monotypic.
E & SE Brazil (Bahia S to Santa Catarina), E Paraguay (E from Canindeyú, Caaguazú) and NE Argentina (Misiones).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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