Previously considered conspecific with Z. meloda, and these two were thought perhaps to be more closely related to Columba than to most other members of Zenaida; genetic data confirm monophyly of genus, and also suggest that present species and Z. meloda are each other’s closest relatives but separate species, thus backing up the differences noted between them in vocalizations and morphology#R. Validity of race australis requires close examination; coloration highly variable, and birds from Veracruz and Costa Rica were found to be indistinguishable. Numerous other races described but normally not accepted#R: clara (Baja California), grandis (Texas), insularis (Tres Marías Is), monticola (Puebla) and palustris (Nayarit) included in mearnsi; alticola (C Guatemala), collina (SE Guatemala) and peninsulae (NE Yucatán) in asiatica; and panamensis (Panama) in australis. Three subspecies currently recognized.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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