“dans les bois de Rezonville”, Metz, France.
Taxonomy complex and unresolved, for reasons given under Z. dauma. Until 1990s present species considered conspecific with dauma, but differs significantly in song, a simple long flat whistle vs a series of complex notes, hence a greatly reduced frequency range (4) and a much-reduced number of notes (3)#R; these differences and scores apply to all taxa included here except neilgherriensis (voice unknown), which is placed here because geographically and morphologically close to race imbricata (given species rank in HBW), which sings like nominate (albeit with slight downslur at start of whistle, occasionally heard also from Japanese birds). Migratory races aurea and toratugumi often treated as a separate species, as are resident horsfieldi and neilgherriensis. Seeming intergradation in SE Asia of certain plumage characters demarcating nominate aurea with nominate Z. dauma represents a problem that also affects status of horsfieldi, although latter is mensurally distinctive. Resident population on Iriomote (in S Ryukyu Is) recently described as a race of this species#R (song unknown); that on Taiwan (often treated under name horsfieldi) is referable to present species on basis of very similar song, but remains racially indeterminate. Six subspecies currently recognized.
Taiwan population of undetermined taxonomic status.
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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