Was considered a separate species in the past, but recent trend has been to lump with A. sulcatus on grounds of vocal similarity and intergradation#R. However, highly distinctive in bill morphology, with yellow replacing red (3), black distributed differently (2) and length greater (effect size 2.53; score 2); moreover, tail also longer (ns) and zone of intergradation narrow (2). Recent molecular study#R indicated that it is nested within sulcatus but also found it monophyletic. Also closely related to A. albivitta, with which range overlaps somewhat. Monotypic.
NE Colombia (Santa Marta and Perijá Mts) E into W Venezuela (E to SW Lara).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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