French: Bihoreau violacé German: Krabbenreiher Spanish: Martinete coronado
Subspecies and Distribution
N. v. violacea
(Linnaeus, 1758) – C & E USA, E Mexico and along Caribbean coast to E Costa Rica; winters S to West Indies and Panama.
N. v. bancrofti
Huey, 1927 –
Pacific coast from NW Mexico (S Baja California and C Sonora) to Nicaragua; West Indies and Bahamas; recently found breeding in S California#R.
N. v. gravirostris
van Rossem, 1943 – Socorro I and Tres Marías Is (off W Mexico).
N. v. cayennensis
(J. F. Gmelin, 1789) – NE Panama, N & E Colombia and Venezuela to coastal N & E Brazil (S to Rio Grande do Sul).
N. v. caliginis
(Wetmore, 1946) – Cocos I (W of Costa Rica), Panama and W Colombia to NW Peru (Tumbes).
N. v. pauper
P. L. Sclater & Salvin, 1870 – Galapagos Is.
51–70 cm; 649–716 g; wingspan 101–112 cm. Unmistakable, with cream-white crown and crest plumes, black head with broad white streak across face, and grey... read more
Considered rather vocal: commonest call is similar to “squawk” of Nycticorax... read more
Very varied, but most typically frequents mangroves, large cypress swamps, tidal mudflats, marshes... read more
Food and feeding
Specialist in crustaceans, particularly crabs (Uca, Rithropanopeus, Panopeus, Ucides, Pachygrapsis... read more
Laying Mar–Jul in N (USA, Mexico and Bahamas, but also Trinidad and Surinam); however, typically continues later in tropics, mostly... read more
Generally fairly sedentary. However, majority of northern population of nominate violaceus... read more
Status and conservation
Not globally threatened (Least Concern). Population overall considered stable, with loss and modification of mangrove forests and other coastal habitats the principal long-... read more
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