Mexico; error = Rio Solimões, Brazil.
One of the so-called “croaking group” of toucans (see R. toco), along with three species usually considered conspecific with it, namely R. citreolaemus, R. vitellinus and R. ariel, because of extensive hybrid populations which render it difficult to draw strict boundaries separating forms geographically. Nevertheless, present species is strongly distinct from R. citreolaemus and R. vitellinus (with R. ariel) by virtue of characters indicated under those taxa. Several previously described forms now known to represent hybrids: berliozi (R Negro, in N Brazil) and osculans (upper R Negro) are crosses between culminatus and vitellinus; and theresae (NE Brazil) and pintoi (SE Brazil) are hybrids of culminatus with ariel. Monotypic.
NW & SW Venezuela, and Colombia E of Andes, E to C & E Brazil (W Pará, Piauí) and S to C Bolivia, Mato Grosso and SE Brazil (NW São Paulo).
Food and feeding
Status and conservation
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